The deniers of a spandex fiber range from 20 to 4300 and are determined by what the product use will be. The present invention relates to a yellow disperse dye represented by the following formula (1); A red disperse dye represented by the following formula (2); And at least one blue disperse dye selected from blue disperse dyes represented by the following general formulas (3) to (5). So valuable is DuPont's spandex technology that it was the subject of an extortion attempt 10 years ago. ", "Spandex - Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages", "Spandex Stretches To Meet U.S. Waistlines", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spandex&oldid=996706599, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Italian-language text, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1. Also key in the production of spandex is the intermediary 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) (13 carbons, 14 hydrogens, 2 nitrogens), which is classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a hazardous chemical, capable of causing severe liver damage to exposed humans and animals. Basic: Hot alkali damages the spandex filament. This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager. History, major products, methods of production, http://www.fibersource.com/f-tutor/spandex.htm, FTC definition, uses, characteristics, care, https://pubs.acs.org/cen/whatstuff/stuff/7707scitek4.html, http://www.madehow.com/Volume-4/Spandex.html. It has a broad spectrum of biological activities and is known multisite carcinogen capable of inducing tumors in various animal species. [12] This expansion furthered at the 1968 Winter Olympic Games when the French ski team wore Lycra garments to compete. This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager. [14] By the 1980s, the fitness trend had reached its height in popularity and fashionistas began wearing shorts on the street. Protection ability Organic solvent: Good; Protection ability light: Very good All of these methods include the initial step of reacting monomers to produce a prepolymer. Physics Formula Leggings $ 36.95 – $ 39.99. [8] This modification produced a stretchy fiber that could withstand high temperatures. She enjoys dancing, writing, science, and watching films. Spandex fibers of the physical properties and chemical properties superior to the natural latex silk, the oxidation stability of the solvent, sweat and low light sensitivity. It can be stretched four to seven times its original length. The resulting fibers are then treated with a finishing agent which can be, This page was last edited on 28 December 2020, at 05:08. Synonyms. This science chemical formula form-fitting tank top is a must have! The combination of a flexible macroglycol and a stiff diisocyanate create a structured. DuPont became interested in developing a synthetic elastic fiber in the 1930s, which was perfected by chemist Joseph Shivers in 1959. As the decade progressed, shirts, pants, dresses, and even shoes were being made with spandex blends, and mass-market retailers like Banana Republic were using it for menswear. Hydrolysis by water alone is so slow as to be completely unimportant. It is a polyether-polyurea copolymer that was invented in 1958 by chemist Joseph Shivers at DuPont's Benger Laboratory in Waynesboro, Virginia.[1][2][3][4][5]. Spandex fibers of the physical properties and chemical properties superior to the natural latex silk, the oxidation stability of the solvent, sweat and low light sensitivity. It is combined with other ‘hard’ yarns to Differences result from both chemical structure and production technology. The Chemistry of Stars. n = a very large number of repeating double 'molecular segments' in the polymer chain. It typically happens when head is raised rapidly from 140 to 165 °C. Spandex, Lycra or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity.It is a polyether-polyurea copolymer that was invented in 1958 by chemist Joseph Shivers at DuPont's Benger Laboratory in Waynesboro, Virginia. Caution urged on spandex chemical Print Written by John Mowbray Published: 11 April 2018 A chemical commonly used to prevent nylon and polyester stretch fabrics from yellowing during transport and storage may be breaking down into a carcinogenic … 25036-33-3. Girdles came to be associated with anti-independence and emblematic of an era that was quickly passing away. The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars. Simple esters are easily hydrolyzed by reaction with dilute acids or alkalis.Polyesters are attacked readily by alkalis, but much more slowly by dilute acids. When you hear spandex, your first thought might be the Under Armour you’re wearing under your football jersey, or the shorts volleyball players run around in. The terms spandex, Lycra, and elastane are synonymous. The chemistry of spandex wasn’t something that had always intrigued me; that is, not until, the day I started wearing leggings on a nearly daily basis and realized it was a main. Originally called Fiber K, DuPont chose the trade name Lycra to distinguish its brand of spandex fiber.[9]. Polyesters display a wide array of properties and practical applications. It’s found in nearly 80% of clothes sold in the United States today, but was first. 5. Effect of bleaching: Bleaching agent damages the fiber and it becomes weak. •Spandex is a man-made elastic fiber. Synthetic fibers are more durable than most natural fibers. The majority of spandex is made via a method called dry spinning, though other methods can be used. Polyester, a class of synthetic polymers built up from multiple chemical repeating units linked together by ester (CO-O) groups. Things like: muscle and heart contracts and many other things all rely on potassium. Common non-cellulosic fibers include Nylon (1931), Olefin (1949), Acrylic (1950), Polyester (1953) and Spandex (1959). 20 denier spandex, for example, is used in ligthweight support hoisery, in which a large amount of stretch is necessary for the products use and durability. Basic: Hot alkali damages the spandex filament. [13], By the mid-1970s, girdle sales began to drop with the emergence of the Women's Liberation Movement. 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, polymer with 1,4-benzenediamine. The solution dry spinning method is used to produce over 94.5% of the world's spandex fibers. Chemical Properties of Spandex: The chemical properties of spandex are given below. Each top is cut and sewn in-house. And other world producers include Japan's Asahi Chemical Industry and Toyobo, and South Korea's Tae Kwang Industrial Co. It is a polyether-polyurea copolymer that was invented in 1958 by chemist Joseph Shivers at DuPont's Benger Laboratory in Waynesboro, Virginia. The Chemistry of Stress. The complex components of it took years to pull together into the ideal flexible material you see today! Trigonometry Formulas & Integrals Math Leggings Spandex is produced as monofilament or fused multifilament yarns in a variety of deniers. Circle the urethane functional group(s). [12] At this time, women began to emerge as a significant group of consumers because of their need for underwear and hosiery. Mariah Alberti is a junior at Billings Senior High School. Kevlar 29, monomer-based. but prevalent in women's. Cellulose is a macromolecule –– a polymer made up of a long chain of glucose molecules linked by C-1 to C-4 oxygen … Urethane is also called as ethyl carbamate is the ethyl ester of carbamic acid with the chemical formula C 3 H 7 NO 2. [citation needed] An estimated 80% of clothing sold in the United States contained spandex in 2010, as noted by a journalist: "Spandex Stretches To Meet U.S. Synonyms. A benefit of spandex is its significant strength and elasticity and its ability to return to the original shape after stretching and faster drying than ordinary fabrics. [12] Fashion's original style icon, Audrey Hepburn helped catapult the brand on and off-screen in the late 1950s; models and actress like Joan Collins and Anne-Margret followed Hepburns aesthetic by posing in Lycra clothing for photo shoots and magazine covers. The present invention relates to a yellow disperse dye represented by the following formula (1); A red disperse dye represented by the following formula (2); And at least one blue disperse dye selected from blue disperse dyes represented by the following general formulas (3) to (5). Hydrolysis of polyesters. The name spandex is actually an anagram of “expands”, coined by Joseph Shivers in, 1958. Q: “What is the chemical structure of polyester?” Polyesters are a class of polymers formed as a result of polycondensation (step-growth polymerization) of a dialcohol with a diacid (or diester). A urethane is a composite functional group that is part ester and part amide. [6] It is the preferred name in North America; in continental Europe it is referred to by variants of "elastane", i.e. In North America it is rare in men's clothing,[when?] The first step is to produce the prepolymer. Contrary to popular belief, the term "spandex" is not a brand name, and this term is used to generally refer to polyether-polyurea copolymer fabrics that have been made with a variety of production processes. In response, DuPont reimagined Lycra as the aerobic fitness movement emerged in the 1970s. History, uses, material, chemical makeup, methods of production, http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2011/06/spandex-physical-and-chemical_774.html, http://www.docbrown.info/page03/sms04.htm, *All content and webpages on this website were created by High School students. No matter which name is used the stretch fibers used to create stretch denim are the same. The Chemistry of Sriracha. Spandex is used in such apparel as foundation garments, support hosiery, and swimsuits. This compound is responsible for the characteristic odor of human sweat, says George Preti, a chemist at Monell Chemical Senses Center who specializes in perspiration research. Common non-cellulosic fibers include Nylon (1931), Olefin (1949), Acrylic (1950), Polyester (1953) and Spandex (1959). An aqueous emulsion finish, particularly suited for use on spandex fibers, comprising 50 to 95 weight percent water and 50 to 5 percent solids, the solids consisting essentially of 80 to 99.5% polydimethylsiloxane and 20 to 0.5% of an ethoxylated alkyl alcohol having a number average molecular weight of at least 800, and a chemical formula H(CH 2) n--O--(CH 2 CH 2 O) p--H [11], In the post World War II era, DuPont Textiles Fibers Department, which was formed in 1952, became its most profitable division, dominating the synthetic fiber market worldwide. Polymerization is the formation of macromolecules through repetition of basic units. Multifilaments are partly fused together at intervals and are found in fibers with deniers of 40 and above. The rain popularity and fashionistas began wearing shorts on the street Shivers at DuPont 's Lycra spandex in. Popular in mid-thigh-length shorts worn by cyclists as the fibers are produced in four ways: melt extrusion, spinning. 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